中文 | English | 한국의 | Deutsch
News
Industry News
Research on the development strategy of China's hydrogen energy industry
Update Time : 2022-07-29 View : 1039
1、 Foreword
Since hydrogen was first discovered in the 16th century, it has been regarded as an important clean energy in the future because of its rich sources, light weight, high energy density, green and low carbon, diverse storage methods and utilization forms. However, restricted by safety, cost, technology and other factors, hydrogen energy was mainly used in military, aerospace and other cutting-edge fields in the past, and its long-term development in the civil field was slow, and it has never stepped into the threshold of commercial application. In recent years, with the signing of the Paris Agreement, coping with climate change has become the top-level strategy for the long-term development of energy, economy and society in the future. Clean energy characterized by green and low carbon has become an important direction of future energy development. As the second clean energy with the most potential for human sustainable development in the 21st century, hydrogen energy has been highly valued all over the world and has also received extensive attention in China. In the future, it is expected to play an important role in China's energy transformation and the realization of "carbon peaking and carbon neutralization". Internationally, the United States, the European Union, Japan, South Korea and other developed countries and regions have incorporated hydrogen energy into their national energy development strategies to continue to promote the development of the hydrogen energy industry.
At present, the development of China's hydrogen energy industry has entered a new historical period. The medium and long term plan for the development of hydrogen energy industry (2021-2035) has officially incorporated hydrogen energy into China's energy strategic system, and proposed to systematically build an innovation system to support the high-quality development of the hydrogen energy industry, comprehensively promote the construction of hydrogen energy infrastructure, steadily promote the diversified demonstration and application of hydrogen energy, and constantly improve the hydrogen energy development policy and institutional guarantee system, Form a 1+n policy system around the plan. To this end, it is urgent to fully understand the significance of developing the hydrogen energy industry, from the unity of thought, understanding and action to the strategic deployment of the development of the hydrogen energy industry, do a good job in reform and innovation, solve development problems, grasp the key problems of independent core technology and equipment, and strive to make breakthroughs in the fields of technology, market, system and mechanism.
2、 Development of hydrogen energy industry
(1) Development significance
With the development trend of clean, low-carbon and intelligent global energy, the development of hydrogen energy industry has become an important direction of the current world energy technology reform. Hydrogen energy is an important support to ensure the cleanness and diversification of energy structure, and is of great significance to the clean, low-carbon, efficient and sustainable development of global energy.
Hydrogen energy is an important starting point for large-scale decarbonization and carbon reduction in high carbon emission fields such as transportation, industry and construction. Transportation is the second largest emission source of global carbon emissions, accounting for about 25% of the total. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the characteristics of short hydrogenation time, long range and zero emission, and have inherent advantages in the transportation system with large load, long-term driving and high intensity. In the industrial field, hydrogen energy is used as raw material or high-level heat energy in the production process of steel, metallurgy, petrochemical and cement by using its own reductant and high combustion heat value. It is an important means of deep decarbonization in the industrial field; In the construction field, using hydrogen to replace natural gas for heating is an important development direction to realize the low-carbon transformation of energy consumption in the construction field.
Hydrogen energy will play an important role in the field of energy diversification and cleaning. The global energy transformation under the scenario of "below 2 ℃" needs to significantly increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy structure. As an important energy carrier, hydrogen energy can complete the tasks of cross time regulation, cross regional configuration and cross variety coupling, realize the transformation with other energy varieties, improve the consumption of renewable energy, provide long-term energy storage, optimize regional material flow and energy flow, and then establish a diversified energy system. In terms of cross domain coupling, hydrogen production through renewable energy can be flexibly allocated to meet the energy consumption demand in the terminal field. In terms of cross time and space, the integration of a high proportion of renewable energy in the power grid will aggravate the imbalance between supply and demand. Through large-scale storage of hydrogen energy, peak load can be adjusted.
Hydrogen energy is applied flexibly and widely, which can make full use of the existing energy infrastructure. In the field of transportation, compared with pure electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have comprehensive advantages in mileage, fuel replenishment speed, energy conservation, emission reduction and noise reduction, and experience is close to traditional fuel vehicles, which is more in line with user preferences. In the field of energy and construction, hydrogen can be directly mixed into the natural gas pipeline network in a certain proportion for mixing and burning, or hydrogen can be used to synthesize ammonia, methanol and methane, which can reuse the existing terminal equipment on a large scale without large-scale transformation and upgrading of infrastructure.
(2) Development background
In 2015, 196 national or regional governments signed the Paris agreement to deal with climate change, setting the overall goal that the global temperature rise in 2050 will not exceed 2 ℃ compared with the level before the industrial revolution. As a "zero carbon" energy, hydrogen energy has great carbon reduction capacity. According to the prediction of the International Commission on hydrogen energy, the large-scale application of hydrogen energy can reduce 6 billion tons of CO2 in 2050, which is 20% of the target emission reduction. To this end, major developed countries and regions around the world have issued a series of policies and measures to continue to promote the development of the hydrogen energy industry by strengthening top-level development policy guidance, increasing R & D investment, and accelerating infrastructure and application demonstration construction.
Based on rich and comprehensive policies, the United States pays attention to the development of the whole industrial chain of hydrogen energy and actively promotes commercial applications. At present, the United States has the world's largest hydrogen energy industry market. The "roadmap for hydrogen energy economy" issued by the American fuel cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (fchea) shows that the demand for hydrogen in the United States will exceed 17million tons in 2030, 5600 hydrogen refueling stations are planned to be built, and the output value of the hydrogen energy industry will reach 140billion US dollars; The European Union takes hydrogen energy as the main form of new energy development strategy and low-carbon economic model, actively plans at the strategic level, and with strong policy support, has gradually built a perfect hydrogen energy industry chain under market-oriented operation. Among them, Germany is the most representative country in the European Union to develop hydrogen energy, and the integrated development of hydrogen energy and renewable energy is an important part of Germany's sustainable energy system and low-carbon economy, Germany has also set up a national hydrogen energy technology organization to promote work in related fields; Japan is committed to the realization of hydrogen energy society from the national strategic level. In the "basic energy plan" issued in 2014, hydrogen energy is positioned as the core secondary energy side by side with electricity and heat energy, and the vision of building a "hydrogen energy society" is proposed to achieve real energy security through the popularization and application of hydrogen energy in transportation, home, industry and even the whole society; South Korea regards hydrogen energy as one of the three strategic investment areas, and has issued a number of incentive policies to accelerate the promotion and application of fuel cells in the fields of transportation and power generation. According to the data of South Korea's "hydrogen energy Economic Roadmap", it is expected that the annual domestic hydrogen supply will reach 5.26 million tons in 2040, the number of hydrogen refueling stations will be increased to 1200, and the cumulative output of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will reach 6.2 million. To sum up, the United States, the European Union, Japan and South Korea have raised the development of hydrogen energy to the national / regional strategic level, and through years of policy guidance, large enterprises have led to the establishment of a relatively mature industrial chain related to hydrogen energy, accumulating advanced core technologies in hydrogen production, storage, transportation, hydrogenation and hydrogen consumption. According to the investment and future planning of the above countries and regions in the hydrogen energy industry, hydrogen energy will gradually be applied on a large scale and occupy a decisive position in the energy field.
3、 Strategic requirements for the development of China's hydrogen energy industry
China will improve its national independent contribution, adopt more powerful policies and measures, strive to reach the peak of carbon dioxide emissions by 2030, and strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. As the world's largest country in energy consumption, China's energy structure has been characterized by "one coal dominating" for a long time. In order to achieve the "double carbon" goal, we need to accelerate the transformation of the coal based energy system. In addition to vigorously developing renewable energy, we also need other zero carbon sources as an important supplement. Among them, the role of hydrogen energy is reflected in the following aspects.
(1) Hydrogen energy can promote large-scale carbon reduction in transportation, steel, chemical industry and other fields
In the field of transportation, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the advantages of short filling time and long endurance. They have inherent advantages in the road transportation system with heavy load, long endurance and high intensity. Compared with pure electric routes, heavy trucks in hydrogen fuel cells are more in line with the use habits of end users. Combined with green hydrogen production, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are one of the main ways to promote carbon emission reduction in the field of road transportation in China. In the industrial field, iron and steel, chemical industry and other high-energy industries that do not use electricity as the main energy supply, industrial processes are still highly dependent on primary fossil energy. The core of reducing coal consumption in iron and steel industry is to change the existing blast furnace ironmaking process with coal as the main reductant and fuel. Hydrogen metallurgy technology combined with green hydrogen is the ultimate direction of green and low-carbon development of iron and steel industry. Electricity and hydrogen substitution, and carbon dioxide capture technology can significantly reduce carbon emissions from the chemical industry. It is an important way to achieve the goal of carbon neutralization in the chemical industry to produce green synthetic ammonia by replacing green hydrogen and hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to prepare methanol, ethanol and other fuels, synthesize the most important and basic chemical raw materials by using organic materials such as ethylene, propylene and aromatics, and solve the problem of large-scale utilization of carbon dioxide after carbon capture. It can be seen that hydrogen energy is an important solution to optimize the energy consumption structure and solve the deep decarbonization in related fields.
(2) Hydrogen production from electric energy promotes the multi-purpose and efficient utilization of renewable energy, and supports the safe operation of a high proportion of renewable energy power systems
During the "14th five year plan" period, the growth of China's residents' energy consumption level is expected to reach an average annual growth rate of 2%, and the energy demand will reach 5.5 billion TCE in 2025. There is huge room for the growth of total energy consumption. Increasing the development of renewable energy is the main way for China's energy industry to improve its energy security capacity under the constraints of resources and carbon emissions. With the increase of renewable energy installed capacity, the scenario of high proportion of renewable energy electricity needs several times the installed capacity of the load. The long-term high output of renewable energy brings great challenges to system absorption, safety and energy storage technology; In the period of low output, the power system needs non renewable energy units such as conventional energy to achieve power balance. It is estimated that the demand for flexible resources in the business area of State Grid Corporation of China will reach 700million kW at the end of the "14th five year plan", of which the peak load regulation demand accounts for more than two-thirds, and the peak load regulation demand of renewable energy accounts for 15.7%. In the future, the flexible regulation ability of power system is very important, which is directly related to the overall balance and security of power system and determines the consumption and utilization level of renewable energy. Give full play to the advantages of large-scale and long-term storage of hydrogen, deploy large-scale electrolytic water hydrogen production and energy storage as a flexible resource, track the volatility of renewable energy on the power supply side and the power grid side, flexibly respond to and reduce the excess power in the system, realize the time and space transfer of renewable energy power, effectively improve the quality of energy supply, and improve the consumption and utilization level of renewable energy.
(3) Hydrogen energy helps to enrich China's diversified energy supply and ensure the security of energy supply and demand
Affected by the resource endowment of "rich coal, poor oil and little gas", China's energy consumption has been dependent on coal for a long time, and the external dependence of oil and gas resources remains high. In 2021, China's total energy consumption was about 5.23 billion TCE, with clean energy consumption accounting for 25.3% and coal consumption accounting for 56%. The variety of energy supply and consumption is relatively single, mainly coal, followed by oil. The balance of energy supply and demand and the stability of energy prices are vulnerable to changes in the international energy market and major crisis events. Hydrogen production from electric energy promotes the development of renewable energy and multi-purpose and efficient utilization. Under the new resource endowment concept of "renewable energy and green energy", hydrogen and electricity cooperate to build a diversified and clean energy supply system, promote the planning of natural gas hydrogen mixing pipe network, improve the peak shaving capacity of natural gas, and strengthen the security of energy supply. In addition, hydrogen fuel cells can also be used as backup emergency power supply to play an important role in maintaining public safety. In the future, with the construction of 5g base stations and big data centers, the application scenarios of hydrogen backup emergency power supply will be further expanded. Combined with the application of hydrogen energy in the fields of fuel cells, green chemical industry and green steel, hydrogen is used to replace oil and coal to promote the diversification and cleaning of terminal energy consumption. Combined with green hydrogen supply, it promotes the two-way coordination between the energy supply side and the demand side, and ensures the safety of energy supply and demand.
(4) Accelerate the development and layout of renewable energy and green hydrogen in the "Three North" region to achieve low-carbon, green and sustainable development of local economy and society
With the improvement of renewable energy hydrogen production technology and the continuous reduction of costs, China's "Three North" areas rich in wind energy and photovoltaic resources will become new resource "rich" areas. Limited by transmission and consumption, wind power and photovoltaic resources cannot be fully developed. Taking China's class II regions as an example, after comprehensively considering the fixed investment and operation and maintenance costs of hydrogen production equipment, the cost per kilogram of hydrogen production from wind power photovoltaic power grid can be less than 20 yuan, which is expected to be further reduced to no more than 15 yuan after further scale-up. Electrolytic water hydrogen production process only needs less than 10 tons of water for each ton of hydrogen produced. The development of green hydrogen will not lead to the shortage of water resources in Northwest China due to the development of green hydrogen industry. The purity and quality of hydrogen produced by electrolyzing water from renewable energy are relatively high. Considering the comprehensive cost of purification and decarbonization, hydrogen production from renewable energy has initially become economical in scenic areas in China. On the basis of green hydrogen guarantee and the construction of green industrial system, the "Three North" region will become China's new high-energy industry cluster without increasing local pollution emissions and carbon emissions, and rely on renewable energy development to gather and form emerging industrial clusters such as renewable power generation equipment manufacturing, electrolytic water hydrogen production equipment manufacturing, green chemical industry, green metallurgy, etc, Fundamentally establish a sustainable economic cycle model in Northwest China.
4、 Development status of hydrogen energy industry in China
(1) Industrial scale
In recent years, the development of China's hydrogen energy industry has accelerated, and the industrial scale has been increasing. According to the data of the white paper 2020 on China's hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry, China's hydrogen production capacity is about 41 million tons per year, and the annual output is about 33.42 million tons. By the end of 2021, China has built 255 hydrogen refueling stations, with about 9315 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and has become the world's largest hydrogen producing country and fuel cell commercial vehicle market. From the perspective of future industrial planning, dozens of provinces (cities) and regions such as Beijing, Hebei, Shanghai, Henan, Zhejiang, Shandong, Sichuan, Chongqing, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Suzhou, Foshan and Lanzhou have released hydrogen energy industry development plans / implementation plans / action plans; In the released local plan, it is expected that by 2025, the cumulative promotion of fuel cell vehicles will exceed 150000, the number of hydrogen refueling stations will exceed 1000, and the cumulative output value of the hydrogen energy industry will exceed 960billion yuan. In addition, in terms of R & D investment, although China's hydrogen energy layout is relatively late, it is gradually becoming the country with the largest increase in R & D budget investment.
(2) Industrial layout
After years of scientific and technological research, China has mastered some core technologies related to hydrogen energy infrastructure and fuel cells, formulated and issued 112 national standards, and has a certain production capacity of industrial equipment and fuel cell vehicles. At present, the overall characteristics of China's hydrogen energy industry are as follows: first, the industry is developing rapidly. Many provinces have issued documents to speed up the cultivation of a number of enterprises with key technologies, core equipment and innovation capabilities in the hydrogen energy industry, and began to layout key materials and core components, as well as key projects such as hydrogen production, storage and transportation, hydrogen refueling stations, fuel cell vehicles, fuel cell power generation systems, etc. the domestic hydrogen energy industry shows a trend of rapid development. Second, large energy enterprises began to enter the Bureau. With the inclusion of "promoting the construction of charging, hydrogenation and other facilities" in the government work report of the State Council in 2019, as well as large energy enterprises such as China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation, national energy group, China National Petroleum Corporation, and state Power Investment Corporation, which increased the layout of the hydrogen energy industry, investment in the field of hydrogen infrastructure was gradually carried out. Third, regional

Copyright © 2022 FanMei Strategic Metal Resources Ltd. Shenzhen record / license number: ICP No. 14030609