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Countries with the largest number of five strategic metals in the world
Update Time : 2022-05-25 View : 1242

Strategic mineral resources are related to national economic security, national defense security and the development of strategic emerging industries. Therefore, each country should comprehensively improve its resource control, transformation driving force, resource allocation and industrial competitiveness, strengthen the "national strategy" of strategic mineral resources, and consolidate the guarantee foundation and reserve system of strategic key metal mineral resources. A very important part of this is the retention of strategic metals. For example, China once announced restrictions on the export of rare earth elements. For a time, the United States, Japan and other countries immediately stood up and reacted. It can be seen that rare earth elements are so important. Here are the five strategic metals in the world:
1、 Magnesium (known as "defense metal")
Magnesium was once known as a very important "national defense metal". It is an important raw material for manufacturing military equipment. Due to its own characteristics, magnesium can be used to make flares and incendiary bombs. But there are other more important functions. For example, magnesium aluminum alloy is widely used in aerospace because of its light weight. It is an essential structural material for the production of spacecraft, military aircraft, missiles, high mobility combat vehicles and ships.
Magnesium is a light, ductile, silvery white metal. It is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust and the ninth most abundant element in the universe. Density 1.74 g / cm, melting point 648.8 ℃. Boiling point 1107 ℃. It belongs to one of the light metals. Its characteristics: it has ductility, can react with hot water to release hydrogen, and can produce dazzling white light when burning. Many metals are prepared by thermal reduction of their salts and oxides.
The first person in the world to recognize magnesium as an element was Joseph black in Edinburgh (England) in 1755. He identified the bitter earth (magnesium oxide, MgO) in lime (calcium oxide, Cao), but both are produced by heating, similar to carbonate rock, magnesite and limestone. In 1799, Thomas reported that this kind of ore was more used in Turkey, which was called magnesium silicate (another kind of ore, Henry reported).
Major countries of global metallic magnesium: according to the data released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015, the world's proven magnesite resources reach 12 billion tons and reserves reach 2.4 billion tons. Countries with rich reserves include: Russia (650 million tons, accounting for 27% of the total); China (500 million tons, accounting for 21% of the total); South Korea (450 million tons).
The concentration of magnesium chloride in salt lake water is higher than that in seawater, so salt lake water is also an important resource for magnesium production. The Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan are world-famous and rich in magnesium resources.
It is worth mentioning that China is the richest country in the world in terms of magnesite resources after Russia. Its characteristics are: limited regional distribution, relatively concentrated reserves and many large deposits. 21% of the world's Magnesite reserves are concentrated in China, and 67% of the output is provided by China. There are 27 mining areas with proved magnesite reserves, distributed in 9 provinces (regions), especially in Liaoning, which has the most abundant magnesite reserves, accounting for 85.6% of the country. China's Salt Lake magnesium salt is mainly distributed in the north of Tibet Autonomous Region and Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. The magnesium salt reserves in Qaidam Basin account for 99% of the total amount of magnesium salt identified in the country, ranking first in the country.
China and Russia have the largest magnesium processing equipment. These two countries produce two-thirds of the world's magnesium oxide. Japan, the Netherlands and the United States mainly extract magnesium from seawater and brine, and the output of magnesium oxide accounts for about 52% of the global total. In addition, there is also the world magnesium industry in China. China's magnesium industry depends on Fugu.
2、 Rhenium (known as "super metal")
Rhenium is a rare metal. Most of the global rhenium resources are distributed in America and Europe. According to the data released by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2015, the global proven resource reserves of rhenium are about 1100 tons, including about 500 tons in the United States and 600 tons in other countries.
Rhenium is the most critical metal in the production of single crystal blades. Rhenium is mainly used to produce very important Aeroengine Blades in the aviation field, which is closely related to the production of fighter planes. It can be said that without rhenium, modern aircraft cannot be produced. In addition, rhenium is also a necessary metal for manufacturing high-precision equipment such as gyroscopes.
Rhenium is the latest natural element discovered by human beings. Because the discoverer is a German chemist, it is named rhenium after the Rhine River. Its content in the earth's crust is smaller than all rare earth elements, and it is more difficult to obtain than diamonds. According to the previous report of the U.S. Geological Survey, the proved rhenium reserves in the world are only about 2500 tons. The price of rhenium is similar to that of platinum. It costs about two or three hundred yuan a gram.
It is worth mentioning that the value of rhenium has exceeded that of platinum. Because of its high price, it was not until 1950 that laboratory treasures became important emerging metal materials.
Rhenium is also widely used in various sectors of modern industry, mainly as catalyst for petroleum industry and automobile industry, oil reforming catalyst, rhenium alloy for electronic industry and aerospace industry, etc. To sum up, its important functions include the following:
1. Rhenium is mainly used as a catalyst in the petroleum industry,
2. Rhenium has high electron emission properties and is widely used in radio, television and vacuum technology.
3. Rhenium has a high melting point and is a main high temperature instrument material; At the same time, rhenium containing alloys are also used in the manufacture of heat-resistant parts of aeroengines. About 80% of rhenium in the world is used in the production of aeroengines.
4. Rhenium and rhenium alloys can also be used as electronic tube components and ultra-high temperature heaters to evaporate metals.
5. Tungsten rhenium thermocouples do not soften at 3100 ℃. Adding 25% rhenium to tungsten or molybdenum alloy can increase the ductility; Rhenium is used as high-temperature coating on rockets and missiles. Rhenium is required for instruments and high-temperature components used in spacecraft, such as thermal shielding, arc discharge, electric contactor and so on.
6. Metal rhenium and its alloy can be used to make tap water pen tip and high temperature thermocouple; Used as catalyst in alcohol dehydrogenation, synthetic ammonia and other chemical industries; Alloys containing rhenium can withstand high temperature; Because rhenium is dispersed and expensive, its practical application needs to be developed. It is also used to make electric filaments, shells of artificial satellites and rockets, protective plates of atomic reactors, etc.
Rhenium has a density of 21.04 g / cm3, a melting point of 3180 ℃ and a boiling point of 5627 ℃. It is soft and has good mechanical properties.
Rhenium is a very rare and dispersed element, with a content of only 10-7% in the earth's crust. It mainly exists in molybdenite. Re2O7 can be obtained from flue dust from smelting molybdenite. Then KCl is added and reduced with hydrogen. Because the melting point of rhenium is 3180 ℃, rhenium is one of the high melting point metals. It is used to make electric filaments, shells of satellites and rockets, protective plates of atomic reactors, etc. chemically, it is used as a catalyst. Rhenium is a truly rare element. Its content in the earth's crust is smaller than that of all rare earth elements, only larger than those of 镤 and radium. In addition, it does not form fixed minerals and is usually associated with other metals. This makes it the last element found in nature.
Major countries of rhenium metal in the world: according to the report on global and China rhenium market survey and investment prospect forecast (2018 Edition), according to the report of the U.S. Geological Survey, the global rhenium reserves were 2500 tons as of 2013, of which more than half were distributed in Chile, and the distribution was very concentrated. Rhenium reserves are 10180 tons, more than 44% of which are distributed in the United States. With Chile and Canada, the top three account for 80.49%. Therefore, rhenium is quite concentrated.
In recent years, the annual output of rhenium in the world is more than 50 tons. The main global producers are molymet in Chile, climax and RTZ Kennecott in the United States, kazakhmys in Kazakhstan and KGHM ecoren in Poland. The output of these five companies once accounted for 93% of the global production capacity, and the global rhenium supply concentration is high. At present, China's production capacity is relatively small, and the output is estimated to be about 2 tons.
It is worth mentioning that the demand for rhenium is basically concentrated in high-temperature heat-resistant alloys and catalysts, of which the former accounts for about 78% and the latter 22%. In the next 20 years, the world's major aviation powers will produce 140000 advanced aeroengines. The turbine blades used in the new generation of large commercial aircraft engines are made of superalloys containing up to 6% rhenium. The total demand for rhenium superalloys in the world will exceed 80000 tons, with an average of more than 4000 tons per year. At present, the annual output of rhenium containing alloy is only 50% of the market demand, and the demand for rhenium will increase significantly in the future.
3、 Titanium (known as "space metal")
Titanium is also a metal with high strategic value. The density of titanium alloy is very low, even lower than that of magnesium aluminum alloy. In addition, titanium alloy also has the characteristics of high strength and corrosion resistance. It is widely used in aerospace. Titanium products have been widely used in the armor of new US warplanes and military vehicles. In short, the use of titanium alloy has become a world trend. Therefore, titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in the aviation industry and are known as "space metal".
Titanium is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ti, which is located in the fourth cycle and IVB group in the periodic table of chemical elements. It is a silvery white transition metal, which is characterized by light weight, high strength, metallic luster and resistance to wet chlorine corrosion. Titanium is considered a rare metal because it is dispersed in nature and difficult to extract. But it is relatively rich, ranking 10th among all elements.
Titanium can be fused with other elements such as iron, aluminum, vanadium or molybdenum to form high-strength light alloys. It is widely used in various fields, including aerospace (jet engines, missiles and spacecraft), military, industrial procedures (chemical and petroleum products, seawater desalination and papermaking), automobile, agricultural food, medicine (prosthetics, orthopedic transplantation and dental instruments and fillers), sporting goods, jewelry and mobile phones. Titanium dioxide is the whitest thing in the world. One gram of titanium dioxide can paint an area of more than 450 square centimeters white. It is five times whiter than the common white pigment lithopone, so it is the best pigment for white paint.
The two most useful properties of titanium are corrosion resistance and the highest strength to weight ratio in metals. In the non alloy state, the strength of titanium is similar to that of some steels, but it is still lighter. 45% titanium has plasticity. The elongation of high-purity titanium can reach 50-60% and the reduction of area can reach 70-80%, but its strength is low, so it is not suitable to be used as structural material. The biggest disadvantage of titanium is that it is difficult to refine. The main reason is that titanium has strong ability to combine with oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and many other elements at high temperature. Therefore, no matter in smelting or casting, people are careful to prevent these elements from "invading" titanium. When smelting titanium, the access of air and water is strictly prohibited, of course. Even the alumina crucible commonly used in metallurgy is prohibited, because titanium will capture oxygen from alumina.
Major titanium countries in the world: more than 30 countries in the world have titanium resources, mainly in China, Australia, India, South Africa and other countries. According to the data released by the US Geological Survey (USGS) as early as 2015, the total resources of anatase, ilmenite and rutile in the world exceed 2 billion tons, of which the reserves of ilmenite are about 720 million tons, accounting for 92% of the global titanium, and the reserves of rutile are about 47 million tons, with a total reserves of about 767 million tons. Global titanium resources are mainly distributed in Australia, South Africa, Canada, China, India and other countries,
Among them, Canada, China and India are mainly rock mines; Australia and the United States are mainly placers; South Africa is rich in rocks and placers. If the top five ilmenite published by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015 are: China (200 million tons), Australia (170 million tons), India (85 million tons), South Africa (63 million tons) and Brazil (43 million tons); The top three rutile mineral reserves are Australia (28 million tons), South Africa (8.3 million tons) and India (7.4 million tons)
It is worth mentioning that ilmenite accounts for 98% of China's total reserves of titanium resources, and rutile accounts for only 2%. According to the data released by USGS, China's ilmenite reserves are 200 million tons, accounting for 28% of the global reserves, ranking first in the world. Although China is rich in titanium resources, the mineral grade is low, and the content of calcium, magnesium and other metal impurities is high (≥ 2%). The separation of titanium resources is difficult, the recovery rate is low, the production cost is high, and the comprehensive utilization rate of resources is too low. At present, the resource utilization rate of titanium ore in panxi'an area with the largest production capacity in China is only 6% - 8%, which makes 90% of China's high-end aviation grade titanium production raw materials dependent on imports (Vietnam, etc.).
4、 Tungsten (known as "industrial teeth")
Tungsten is also a metal of strategic significance. At the same time, tungsten is also known as "industrial teeth". Tungsten has good high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. Therefore, tungsten is an important raw material for manufacturing cemented carbide and special steel. Tungsten can be seen on the cutting tools of various precision machine tools. In addition, tungsten is also widely used in national defense industry, aerospace and so on.
Tungsten products are non-toxic and environment-friendly. Due to the harm caused by lead and depleted uranium to the environment, tungsten products have been used to replace the previous raw materials for the manufacture of bullet warheads, so as to reduce the harm caused by military materials to the environment. Tungsten has the characteristics of high hardness and high temperature resistance. The military applications of this performance mainly include: tungsten alloy bullet and bullet head; Balance Pinball of missile and aircraft; Armor piercing projectile measurement core; Kinetic energy armor piercing projectile; Armor and shells; grenade; Bulletproof vehicles, armored tanks, artillery parts, guns; Rocket accessories, etc.
Tungsten is a rare high melting point metal. Tungsten metal is resistant to high temperature without deformation and is not eroded by air at room temperature. This feature is widely used in military: it is mainly used to make high-speed steel, high-speed cutting tools and superhard molds. Especially in aviation and rocket technology, as well as other departments requiring high thermal strength of machine parts, engines and some instruments, alloys of tungsten and other molten metals (tantalum, niobium, molybdenum and rhenium) are used as thermal strength materials.
The most obvious use of tungsten is for all kinds of high-speed ammunition, especially armor piercing ammunition, which is almost an essential component. Kinetic energy armor piercing projectile made of tungsten alloy. Tungsten can also be used for shell protection or protection of nuclear weapon materials.
It is worth mentioning that 18crzni4wa steel containing tungsten structural steel, which has excellent mechanical properties and great hardenability, is widely used to manufacture heavy-duty grinding parts on aeroengines and high-speed diesel engines. For another example, gun steels pcrw and pcrniw, which can effectively overcome their temper brittleness tendency and improve the strength and hardenability of steel, are specially used to manufacture large-diameter thick tube wall fire gun barrel.
Tungsten is a metallic element. The chemical element symbol of tungsten is w, the atomic number is 74, and the relative atomic mass is 183.85. Tungsten is the refractory metal with the highest melting point. Generally, metals with melting point higher than 1650 ℃ and certain reserves and metals with melting point higher than zirconium melting point (1852 ℃) are called refractory metals. Typical refractory metals are tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, niobium, hafnium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium and titanium. As a refractory metal, the most important advantage of tungsten is that it has good high-temperature strength and good corrosion resistance to molten alkali metals and steam. Tungsten only appears oxide volatilization and liquid oxide above 1000 ℃. Tungsten is a strategic metal.
Major countries of tungsten in the world: China is the largest tungsten storage country in the world. At least so far, China ranks first in the world in terms of tungsten export volume and annual output.
Canada: it has the second largest tungsten reserves in the world.
Russia: wolfram is the largest producer of tungsten products in Russia, and its tungsten ore is mainly distributed in the Far East.
Vietnam: from

战略性矿产资源关乎国家经济安全、国防安全和战略性新兴产业发展。因此,每个国家应全面提升资源掌控力、转型驱动力、资源配置力和产业竞争力,强化战略性矿产资源的“国家战略”,夯实战略性关键金属矿产资源的保障基础和储备体系。其中非常重要的一部分就是战略金属的保有量。比如稀土元素,我国曾宣布限制稀土元素的出口,一时间美国日本等国家立刻站起来反应,可见稀土元素是如此重要。下面为大家介绍一下世界五大战略金属如下:

一、被誉为“国防金属”

誉为十分重要的“国防金属”金属,是制造军事装备的重要原料。镁由于本身的特性可以制造照明弹和燃烧弹等以外。但还有其他更加重要的功能,比如由于镁铝合金的质量较轻,因此广泛应用于航空航天,是生产航天器、军用飞机、导弹、高机动性能战车、船舶的必不可少的结构材料。

镁是一种轻质有延展性的银白色金属。是地球的地壳中第八丰富的元素,亦是宇宙中第九多元素。密度1.74克/厘米,熔点648.8℃。沸点1107℃。属于轻金属之一,特点:具有延展性,能与热水反应放出氢气,燃烧时能产生眩目的白光,许多金属是用热还原其盐和氧化物来制备。

世界上第一个确认镁是一种元素的是Joseph Black,在爱丁堡(英国)于1755年。他辨别了石灰(氧化钙CaO)中的苦土(氧化镁,MgO),然而两者各自都是由加热类似于碳酸盐岩,菱镁矿和石灰石来制取。另一种镁矿石叫做海泡石(硅酸镁),于1799年由Thomas Henry报告,他说这种矿石更多的用于制作烟斗,在土耳其。

全球金属镁主要国家:据美国地质调查局(USGS)2015年公布的数据显示,全球已探明的菱镁矿资源量达120亿吨,储量24亿吨。蕴藏丰富的国家包括:俄罗斯(6.5亿吨,占总量27%);中国(5亿吨,占总量21%);韩国(4.5亿吨)。

盐湖水中的氯化镁浓度比海水高,故盐湖水也是生产镁的重要资源。位于美国犹他州的大盐湖和以色列和约旦间的死海均闻名世界,拥有丰富的镁资源。

值得一提的是,中国是世界上菱镁矿资源是继俄罗斯之后最为丰富的国家,特点地区分布不广、储量相对集中,大型矿床多。世界菱镁矿储量的21%集中在中国,产量的67%由中国提供。菱镁矿探明储量的矿区27处,分布于9个省(区),尤其以辽宁菱镁矿储量最为丰富,占全国的85.6%。我国的盐湖镁盐主要分布于西藏自治区的北部和青海省柴达木盆地,柴达木盆地内的镁盐储量占全国已查明镁盐总量的99%,居全国第一位。

中国和俄罗斯拥有规模最大的镁加工设备。这两个国家生产了全球三分之二的氧化镁。日本,荷兰,美国三国主要从海水和卤水中提取镁,氧化镁产量约占全球总量的52%。另外,也有世界镁业在中国,中国镁业看府谷。

二、被誉为“超级金属”

铼是一种比较稀少的金属,全球铼资源大都分布在美洲和欧洲。根据美国地质调查局2015年发布的数据,全球铼探明资源储量约为1100吨,其中美国铼探明资源储量约为500吨,其他国家为600吨。

单晶叶片生产中最为关键的金属就是——铼。铼主要用于生产航空领域十分重要航空发动机叶片,对于战斗机的生产息息相关,可以说缺乏铼就无法生产现代化飞机。另外铼还是制造类似陀螺仪等高精设备的必备金属

是人类发现最晚的天然元素,因为发现者是德国化学家,因此以莱茵河的名称命名为铼。它在地壳中的含量比所有的稀土元素都小,比钻石更难以获取。据之前美国地质调查局的报告,全球探明的铼储量仅为2500吨左右,铼的价格跟白金的价格相仿,一克大概需要两三百块钱。

值得一提的是,铼的价值已经超过了白金。由于价格昂贵,直到1950年才由实验室珍品变为重要的新兴金属材料。

广泛用于现代工业各部门,主要用作石油工业和汽车工业催化剂,石油重整催化剂,电子工业和航天工业用铼合金等。综上所述,其重要作用包括如下:

1、铼主要用作石油工业的催化剂,

2、铼具有很高的电子发射性能,广泛应用于无线电、电视和真空技术中。

3、铼具有很高熔点,是一种主要的高温仪表材料;同时含铼合金也用于航空发动机耐热部件的制造,全球约80%的铼用于生产航空发动机。

4、铼和铼的合金还可作电子管元件和超高温加热器以蒸发金属。

5、钨铼热电偶在3100℃也不软化,钨或钼合金中加25%的铼可增加延展性能;铼在火箭、导弹上用作高温涂层用,宇宙飞船用的仪器和高温部件如热屏蔽、电弧放电、电接触器等都需要铼。

6、金属铼及其合金可制自来水笔尖和高温热电偶;在醇类脱氢、合成氨等化工中作催化剂;含铼的合金可耐高温;由于铼的存在分散,价格昂贵,实际应用尚待开发。还用来制造电灯丝、人造卫星和火箭的外壳、原子反应堆的防护板等。

密度21.04克/厘米3,熔点3180℃,沸点5627℃。质软,有良好的机械性能。

铼是一个非常稀少而且分散的元素,在地壳中的含量仅有10-7%。主要存在于辉钼矿中。可由冶炼辉钼矿的烟道尘中获得的Re2O7。然后加入KCl,再用氢还原而制得。由于铼的熔点3180℃,属于高熔点金属之一,用来制造电灯丝、人造卫星和火箭的外壳、原子反应堆的防护板等,化学上用做催化剂铼是一个真正稀有元素。它在地壳中的含量比所有的稀土元素都小,仅仅大于镤和镭这些元素。再加上它不形成固定的矿物,通常与其他金属伴生。这就使它成为存在于自然界中被人们发现的最后一个元素。

全球铼金属主要国家:根据《全球及中国铼市场调查与投资前景预测报告(2018版)》显示:据美国地质调查局的报告,截止2013年全球铼储量为2500吨,其中超过一半分布在智利,而且分布极为集中。铼储量基础为10180吨,超过44%分布在美国,加上智利、加拿大,前三家占比达80.49%,因此,铼的分布是相当集中的。

年来全球铼每年的产量在50余吨。全球主要生产商分别是智利的Molymet、美国的Climax和RTZ-Kennecott、哈萨克斯坦的KazakHmys、波兰的KGHM-Ecoren,这五家的产量占到全球产能的93%,全球的铼供应集中度较高。中国目前产能相对较小,产量估计在2 吨左右。

值得一提的是,铼的需求基本都集中在高温耐热合金和催化剂两类,其中前者约占78%,后者22%。未来20年,世界主要航空大国的先进航空发动机产量将达140000台。用于新一代大型商用飞机发动机的涡轮叶片是由含铼高达6%的高温合金制成,世界含铼高温合金总需求量将超过80000吨,平均每年超过 4000吨。而目前每年含铼合金的产量仅有市场需求量的 50%,未来对铼的需求量会大幅度上升。

三、被誉为"空间金属"

钛也是一种具有极高的战略价值的金属,钛合金的密度非常低,甚至比镁铝合金的密度还要低,另外钛合金还具有强度高、耐蚀性等特点,在航空航天方面有很广泛的用途,美军新型战机及军车装甲也已经开始大量采用钛制品。总之钛合金的使用已经是世界的趋势了。因此,钛和钛的合金大量用于航空工业,并且具"空间金属"之称

钛是一种化学元素,化学符号Ti,在化学元素周期表中位于第4周期、第IVB族。是一种银白色的过渡金属,其特征为重量轻、强度高、具金属光泽,耐湿氯气腐蚀。钛被认为是一种稀有金属,这是由于在自然界中其存在分散并难于提取。但其相对丰富在所有元素中居第十位。

钛能与等其他元素熔成合金,造出高强度的轻合金,在各方面有着广泛的应用,包括航天(喷气发动机、导弹及航天器)、军事、工业程序(化工与石油制品、海水淡化及造纸)、汽车、农产食品、医学(义肢、骨科移植及牙科器械与填充物)、运动用品、珠宝及手机等等。二氧化钛是世界上最白的东西, 1克二氧化钛可以把 450多平方厘米的面积涂得雪白。它比常用的白颜料一—锌钡白还要白5倍,因此是调制白油漆的最好颜料。

钛最有用的两个特性是,抗腐蚀性,及金属中最高的强度-重量比。在非合金的状态下,钛的强度跟某些相若,但却还要轻45%钛具有可塑性,高纯钛的延伸率可达50-60%,断面收缩率可达70-80%,但强度低,不宜作结构材料。钛的最大缺点是难于提炼。主要是因为钛在高温下化合能力极强,可以与氧、碳、氮以及其他许多元素化合。因此,不论在冶炼或者铸造的时候,人们都小心地防止这些元素“侵袭”钛。在冶炼钛的时候,空气与水当然是严格禁止接近的,甚至连冶金上常用的氧化铝坩埚也禁止使用,因为钛会从氧化铝里夺取氧。

全球钛金属主要国家:全球共有三十多个国家拥有钛资源,主要分布在中国、澳大利亚、印度、南非等国家。据美国地质调查局(USGS)早在2015年公布的数据显示,全球锐钛矿、钛铁矿和金红石的资源总量超过20亿吨,其中钛铁矿储量约为7.2亿吨,占全球钛矿的92%,金红石储量约为4700万吨,二者合计储量约7.67亿吨。全球钛资源主要分布在澳大利亚、南非、加拿大、中国和印度等国家,

其中加拿大、中国和印度主要是岩矿;澳大利亚、美国主要是砂矿;南非的岩矿和砂矿都十分丰富。若根据美国地质调查局(USGS)2015年公布的钛铁矿前五名为:中国(2亿吨)、澳大利亚(1.7亿吨)、印度(8500万吨)、南非(6300万吨)、巴西(4300万吨);金红石矿产储量前三为澳大利亚(2800万吨)、南非(830万吨)、印度(740万吨)

值得一提的是,钛铁矿中国我国钛资源总储量的98%,金红石仅占2%。据USGS公布的数据,中国钛铁矿储量2亿吨,占全球储量28%,排名全球第一。尽管中国钛资源丰富,但是矿产品位偏低,其钙镁等其他金属杂质含量高(≥2%),钛矿资源分选难度大,回收率低,生产成本高,资源综合利用率太低。目前中国产能最大的攀西地区钛矿,其资源利用率仅为6% ~8%,这就造成了我国高端航空级金属钛生产原料90%依赖于进口(越南等)

四、被誉为“工业牙齿”

钨也是一种具有战略意义的金属,同时钨也被称为“工业牙齿”,钨具有良好的耐高温、耐蚀性,因此钨是制造硬质合金和特种钢材的重要原料,在各种精密机床的刀具上就可以看到钨的身影。另外钨还被广泛应用于国防工业、航空航天等。

钨产品具有无毒环保的性能,由于铅和贫铀对环境造成的危害,因为钨产品已被用来替代以往的原料用作制造子弹弹头,以减少军事材料对环境造成的危害。钨具有高硬度和耐高温的特性,此性能在军事上的运用主要有:钨合金子弹、弹片头; 导弹、飞机的平衡弹球;穿甲弹测量核心; 动能穿甲弹 ;装甲和炮弹; 手榴弹 ;防弹车、装甲坦克、大炮部件、枪支;火箭配件等。

钨是稀有高熔点金属,钨金属耐高温而不变形,常温下不受空气侵蚀。此特性在军事被广泛运用:主要用于制作高速钢、高速切削工具、超硬模具。尤其在航空和火箭技术中,以及要求机器零件、发动机和一些仪器的高热强度的其它部门中,钨和其它给熔金属(钽、铌、钼、铼)的合金被用作热强材料。

钨的最显著用途是用于各种高速弹药,尤其是穿甲弹,几乎是其必不可少的成分。钨合金做成的动能穿甲弹。钨还可用于核武器材料外壳保护或防护。

值得一提的是,含钨结构钢具有极好的机械性能和很大的淬透性的18CrZNi4WA钢,被广泛用于制造航空发动机和高速柴油机上的重负荷磨件。再比如能够有效克服其回火脆性倾向,提高钢的强度和淬透性的炮钢PCrW、PCrNIW,就专门被用来制造大口径厚管壁火炮身管。

钨是一种金属元素。钨的化学元素符号是W,原子序数是74,相对原子质量为183.85,钨是熔点最高的难熔金属。一般熔点高于1650℃并有一定储 量的金属以及熔点高于锆熔点(1852℃)的金属称为难熔金属。典型的难熔金属有钨、钽、钼、铌、铪、铬、钒、锆和钛。作为一种难熔金属,钨最重要的优点是有良好的高温强度,对熔融碱金属和蒸气有良好的耐蚀性能,钨只有在1000℃以上才出现氧化物挥发和液

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