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Ten kinds of rare and small metals collected and stored strategically
Update Time : 2022-04-19 View : 1443
◆ rare earth
Rare earth elements (REE) are the general name of 17 metal elements with atomic numbers of 21, 39 and 57 ~ 71 in Group IIB of the periodic table of chemical elements. Because of its unique electronic structure, it is endowed with excellent optical, magnetic and thermal properties, which are difficult to be replaced. It can be combined with other materials to form new materials with excellent performance and complex categories, so as to greatly improve the quality and performance of downstream products. It is known as the "vitamin of modern industry".
Leading enterprise: Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel Union Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Baotou Steel Co., Ltd.). Baotou Steel (Group), the predecessor of Baotou Steel Co., Ltd., was founded in 1954. After more than 60 years of development, it has become the world's largest rare earth industrial base and an important iron and steel industrial base in China. As an important steel sector of Baotou Steel (Group) company, Baotou Steel Co., Ltd. was established on June 29, 1999.
Compared with other enterprises in the industry, Baotou Steel's biggest and most unique advantage is its inherent advantages in resources. It has the remarkable Bayan Obo polymetallic symbiotic ore, and the proven iron ore reserve is 1.4 billion tons; The reserves of rare earth oxides are 35 million tons, ranking first in the world; Fluorite reserves are 130 million tons, ranking first in the world; Niobium reserves are 6.6 million tons, ranking second in the world. The tailings pond assets are rich in rare earth, fluoride (fluorite), niobium, scandium and other resources, and the resource grade is further improved after beneficiation and enrichment.
◆ tungsten
As a non-ferrous metal, tungsten has the highest melting point among all metal elements. In addition, tungsten has very high strength and hardness, good conductivity and thermal conductivity, and small coefficient of expansion. Tungsten is widely used in mining, metallurgy, machinery, construction, transportation, electronics, chemical industry, light industry, textile, military industry, aerospace, science and technology and other fields.
Leading enterprise: Xiamen tungsten industry Co., Ltd. (Xiamen tungsten industry for short). Xiamen tungsten industry, formerly known as Fujian Xiamen alumina plant, was founded in 1958. It began to turn to tungsten products in 1982 and was renamed Fujian Xiamen tungsten products plant in 1984. In December 1997, Xiamen tungsten products factory in Fujian Province was restructured into Xiamen tungsten industry Co., Ltd.
Xiamen tungsten industry is one of the largest tungsten smelting products processing enterprises and the largest tungsten powder production base in the world. It has a complete industrial chain and has prominent competitive advantages in the fields of tungsten smelting, tungsten wire business, tungsten powder and cemented carbide deep processing. The company has a complete industrial chain from rare earth mining and separation, smelting and separation to rare earth deep-processing products.
◆ antimony
Antimony is mostly used as a component of other alloys, which can increase its hardness and strength. For example, antimony is contained in battery plate, bearing alloy, printing alloy (type), solder, cable sheath and bullet. Lead tin antimony alloy can be used as sheet stamping die. High purity antimony is a doped element of semiconductor silicon and germanium. Antimony white (antimony trioxide) is one of the main uses of antimony. Antimony white is an important raw material for white pigment and flame retardant of enamel and paint. Antimony sulfide (antimony pentasulfide) is the red pigment of rubber. Raw antimony (antimony disulfide) is used in the production of matches and smoke agents.
Leading enterprise: Hunan gold Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Hunan gold). Hunan gold is mainly engaged in the mining and beneficiation of gold and non-ferrous metal mines such as antimony and tungsten, the smelting and processing of non-ferrous metals such as gold, antimony and tungsten, the deep processing of gold and refined antimony, and the import and export of non-ferrous metal mineral products.
Hunan gold itself is one of the few enterprises with antimony mines in China and the largest company with antimony production capacity in China. The total production capacity is 30000 tons. The output in 2020 is 20119 tons and 18872 tons in the first half of 2021, accounting for 20% of the total output in China. By 2025, Hunan gold will strive to reach the first in the national antimony industry, with an annual output of 40000 tons, and become the "invisible champion" in Asia and even the world.
◆ molybdenum
Molybdenum has the advantages of high strength, high melting point, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Its application in iron and steel industry ranks first, accounting for about 80% of the total consumption of molybdenum; Followed by chemical industry, accounting for about 10%; In addition, electrical and electronic technology, medicine and agriculture account for about 10% of the total consumption.
Leading enterprise: Jinduicheng Molybdenum Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Jinmo Co., Ltd.). Jinduicheng Molybdenum Industry Group Co., Ltd. was the main sponsor of Jinduicheng Molybdenum Industry Group Co., Ltd. and jointly initiated and established in 2007 with TISCO group, China color (Ningxia) Oriental Group and Baosteel Group.
Jinduicheng molybdenum mine owned by Jinmo Co., Ltd. is one of the six primary molybdenum deposits in the world, with a molybdenum metal reserve of 780000 tons; The molybdenum metal reserves of Ruyang Donggou molybdenum mine are 680000 tons, with a total of about 1.46 million tons. It has a complete industrial chain integrating molybdenum mining, beneficiation, smelting, chemical industry and metal deep processing. It mainly produces more than 20 kinds of high-quality products in three series: molybdenum metallurgical charge, molybdenum chemical industry and molybdenum metal processing. The scale of molybdenum production and operation ranks among the top three in the world and the first in the same industry in China.
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◆ tin
The discovery and use of tin can be traced back to prehistory. The "bronze" era, which promoted human civilization, is marked by the use of tin copper alloy bronze.
Pure tin has relatively stable chemical properties and is not easy to oxidize. It forms a dense oxide film in long-term contact with air. It is commonly used in the manufacture of tinned sheet and can be used as food packaging materials. Tin has good ductility and is easy to process. It is often processed into tubes, foils, wires, strips and various refined utensils.
Tin can be alloyed with almost all metals. Titanium based alloy, niobium tin alloy and tin silver amalgam have their own applications in atomic energy industry, aviation industry, superconducting materials and medical treatment.
Tin compounds are mainly tin dioxide (SnO2), followed by tin tetrachloride (SnCl4), stannous chloride (SnCl2) and tin organic compounds. These compounds can be used as raw materials of enamel, mordant in printing and dyeing industry, heat stabilizer of plastics, insecticide and bactericide, etc.
Leading enterprise: Yunnan Tin Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Tin Industry Co., Ltd.). Tin Industry Co., Ltd. is the holding company of Yunnan Tin Industry Group Co., Ltd. and the only listed company in the domestic tin industry. It is the largest tin production, processing and export base in China.
Tin Industry Co., Ltd. has the world's most advanced complete set of technologies for mining, beneficiation, metallurgy and deep processing, and has the world's most complete tin mining, beneficiation, metallurgy and deep processing industrial chain. At present, it has an annual capacity of 80000 tons of tin ingots, 24000 tons of tin chemical industry and 38000 tons of tin materials. The domestic market share is about 50% and the global market share is about 20%.
◆ indium
Indium metal is silvery white with light blue. It has good conductivity, good ductility, softer than lead, and can be scored with nails; It has strong plasticity and can be pressed into very thin metal sheets. Indium oxide can form a transparent conductive film. Indium tin oxide (ITO) has the advantages of visible light transmittance of more than 95%, ultraviolet absorption rate ≥ 70%, microwave attenuation rate ≥ 85%, good conductivity and processability, wear resistance and chemical corrosion resistance. With the rapid development of IT industry, the consumption of ITO target as transparent electrode coating (about 70% of indium consumption) has increased sharply for various new liquid crystal displays (LCD) such as notebook computers, televisions and mobile phones, as well as contact screens and architectural glass.
Leading enterprise: Zhuzhou smelting Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Zhuzhou Metallurgical Group). Zhuzhou Smelter Group originated from Zhuzhou Smelter built in 1956. In 2010, China Minmetals reorganized Hunan Nonferrous Metals Holding Group Co., Ltd., the controller of Zhuzhou Smelter through capital and share increase strategy, becoming the ultimate controller of Zhuzhou Smelter. The company mainly produces zinc and its alloys, and comprehensively recovers rare and precious metals such as silver and indium and sulfuric acid. The annual production capacity of indium is 60 tons.
Leading enterprise: Yunnan Tin Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Tin Industry Co., Ltd.). Since 2014, tin industry shares have successively increased the equity of Hualian zinc indium. Hualian zinc indium has excellent resource endowment, of which indium metal ranks first in the country. At present, the indium smelting project with an annual output of 60 tons of tin industry shares has been completed and put into operation, realizing the separate recovery of indium, and achieving the market position of tin and indium double leaders of tin industry shares.
◆ germanium
Germanium is a kind of gray white metal with properties similar to tin. Germanium single crystal can be used as transistor and is the first generation transistor material. Germanium is used in radiation detectors and thermoelectric materials. High purity germanium single crystal has high refractive index, is transparent to infrared, does not pass through visible light and ultraviolet light, and can be used as germanium window, prism or lens for infrared light. Compounds of germanium and niobium are superconducting materials. Germanium dioxide is a catalyst for polymerization. Glass containing germanium dioxide has high refractive index and dispersion properties, and can be used as wide-angle camera and microscope lens. Germanium trichloride is also a new additive for optical fiber materials.
Leading enterprise: Yunnan Chihong Zinc Germanium Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Chihong Zinc Germanium). Chihong Zinc Germanium is a state-controlled listed company focusing on Lead-Zinc germanium industry, comprehensively recovering rare and precious metals, and integrating geological exploration, mining, beneficiation, smelting, chemical industry, deep processing, trade and scientific research. Chihong germanium industry, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Chihong Zinc Germanium, currently has advanced production lines such as high-purity germanium tetrachloride, high-purity germanium dioxide, germanium single crystal, germanium blank and complete sets of infrared equipment, and has an annual production capacity of 60 tons of germanium metal. In 2020, relying on its own germanium resources, the company will annually produce more than 50 tons of germanium products, accounting for more than 40% of the domestic germanium metal output and more than 30% of the global germanium metal output.
◆ gallium
Gallium is a rare metal with low melting point and high boiling point, which is known as the "backbone of electronic industry". The consumption fields of metal gallium include semiconductor and photoelectric materials, solar cells, alloys, medical devices, magnetic materials, etc. among them, the semiconductor industry has become the largest consumption field of gallium, accounting for about 80% of the total consumption. With the rapid development of gallium downstream application industry, especially semiconductor industry and solar cell industry, the demand for metal gallium will also grow steadily in the future.
Leading enterprise: Nanfeng Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Nanfeng chemical). Nanfeng chemical was established in April 1996. The controlling shareholder is Shanxi Coking Coal Yuncheng Salt Chemical Group Co., Ltd. and the actual controller is Shanxi Coking Coal Group. The annual output of sodium sulfate of Nanfeng chemical industry can reach 2.6 million tons, ranking first in the world; The output of magnesium sulfate is 800000 tons; The output of barium sulfate is 40000 tons, ranking first in China. Yuncheng salt pond covers an area of 132 square kilometers. It is rich in sodium sulfate, sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate. In addition, there are a considerable number of more than ten kinds of rare elements such as potassium, lithium, cesium, strontium, gallium and rubidium. The total salt reserves are more than 100 million tons.
◆ tantalum
Tantalum is very hard and has the third melting point after tungsten and rhenium. Tantalum has high ductility, low coefficient of thermal expansion, strong toughness and high corrosion resistance.
In the equipment for preparing various inorganic acids, tantalum can be used to replace stainless steel, and its service life can be dozens of times longer than that of stainless steel. In addition, in chemical, electronic, electrical and other industries, tantalum can replace the tasks that used to be undertaken by precious metal platinum, greatly reducing the cost. Tantalum forms a stable anodic oxide film in acidic electrolyte. Electrolytic capacitors made of tantalum have the advantages of large capacity, small volume and good reliability. Making capacitors is the most important use of tantalum. Tantalum is also the material for making electron emission tube and high-power electron tube parts. Tantalum can be used as the structural material of the combustion chamber of aircraft engine. Tantalum tungsten, tantalum tungsten hafnium and tantalum hafnium alloys are used as heat-resistant and high-strength materials for rockets, missiles and jet engines, as well as parts of control and regulation equipment. Tantalum is easy to process and form. It can be used as supporting accessories, heat shield, heater and heat sink in high-temperature vacuum furnace. Tantalum can be used as orthopedic and surgical materials. Tantalum carbide is used to make cemented carbide; Tantalum boride, silicide, nitride and their alloys are used as heat release elements and liquid metal cladding materials in atomic energy industry; Tantalum oxide is used in the manufacture of advanced optical glass and catalysts.
Leading enterprise: Ningxia Dongfang Tantalum Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Dongfang tantalum industry). Dongfang tantalum industry is a holding subsidiary of China Nonferrous Metals (Ningxia) Dongfang Group Co., Ltd. and a member of China Nonferrous Metals Mining Group Co., Ltd. It was incorporated on April 30, 1999. The company is mainly engaged in the R & D, production, sales, import and export of high-tech products such as rare metals tantalum, niobium, titanium and their alloys. It is a world-famous manufacturer of tantalum and niobium smelting and processing, and its leading products are capacitor grade tantalum powder and tantalum wire. At present, the research level of tantalum powder has reached 300000 micro method • V / g, and the research level of tantalum wire has reached 0.06 mm in diameter.
◆ zirconium
Since ancient times, zirconium has been regarded as a gem because of its rich and colorful color. Zirconium has a wide range of applications, mainly in the form of zirconium silicate and zirconium oxide in the fields of ceramics, refractories and so on.
Because of its small thermal neutron absorption cross section, metal zirconium has excellent nuclear properties. Nuclear grade zirconium is used as the structural material of nuclear powered aircraft carrier, nuclear submarine and civil power reactor, the cladding of uranium fuel element and so on. 3% - 4% of zirconium ore is processed into metal zirconium (or sponge zirconium).
Zirconium will form an oxide film at room temperature, which makes zirconium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistance. At the same time, zirconium has good mechanical and heat transfer properties, coupled with significant cost advantages, which makes it an excellent corrosion-resistant structural material in the field of petrochemical industry.
Leading enterprise: Guangdong Dongfang zirconium Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Dongfang zirconium industry). Dongfang zirconium industry is controlled by China nuclear group and has the only nuclear safety key material with independent intellectual property rights in China - nuclear grade sponge zirconium production line. Founded in 1995, Dongfang zirconium industry is a national key high-tech enterprise specializing in the R & D, production and operation of zirconium series products; The products are mainly divided into seven series: zirconium dioxide, zirconium oxychloride, composite zirconium oxide, zirconium oxide ceramic structural parts, zirconium silicate, fused zirconium oxide and sponge zirconium, with a total of more than 90 varieties and specifications. It is one of the manufacturers with the most complete variety of zirconium products in the world.
Reference source:
Metal encyclopedia, people's information, Xinhua Finance and economics, Huaxia times, sina finance and economics, Phoenix News, China baiyin.com, enterprise check, official websites of various companies

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